Le Graduate Management Admission Council choisit trois grandes écoles supérieures de commerce pour leur adhésion

Les écoles apportent expertise et compréhension à l’appui de la mission du GMAC RESTON, Virginie, 12 déc. 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Le Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC), association internationale de grandes écoles de commerce de premier rang, accueille trois nouveaux membres. L’ajout de ESCP Europe, WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, et Xavier University […]

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The Graduate Management Admission Council Selects Three New Business Schools for Membership

Schools Bring Expertise and Insight in Support of GMAC Mission RESTON, Va., Dec. 10, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — The Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC), a global association of leading graduate business schools, welcomes three new members. The addition of ESCP Europe, WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management, and Xavier University Bhubaneswar brings GMAC’s total […]

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Palestinians warn: back UN statehood bid or risk boosting Hamas

Failure to support limited recognition would undermine Abbas and validate armed resistance to Israel for many, officials warn

The Palestinian leadership is warning Europe and the US that failure to support its bid for statehood at the United Nations on Thursday will further strengthen Hamas after the Gaza fighting by suggesting that violence, rather than diplomacy, is the way to win concessions from Israel.

Senior Palestinian officials believe the vote is a crucial test of whether there is a future for President Mahmoud Abbas’s diplomatic strategy after his credibility was badly damaged among Palestinians by what they regard as the success of Hamas in the conflict with Israel this month.

Many ordinary Palestinians believe the conflict showed that standing up to Israel delivers results, in contrast to years of concessions under US peace plans, and drawn-out negotiations. European diplomats concede that the fighting has shifted the ground before the Palestinian request for recognition as a “non-member state”. Failure to support Abbas could risk further undermining his increasingly weak position, to Hamas’s advantage, they warn.

France has said it will vote in favour, and Spain is shifting in that direction. But the US and Britain are attempting to weaken the impact of a UN vote in support of statehood by putting considerable pressure on the Palestinian leadership to offer guarantees that it will not take advantage of the new status to accuse Israel of war crimes at the international criminal court (ICC) or seek territorial rulings at the international court of justice.

Palestinian officials said Britain and the US had pressed Abbas to sign a confidential side letter, which would not be presented to the UN general assembly, committing the Palestinian Authoritity not to accede to the ICC.

France has been pressuring the Palestinians to amend the resolution to
make it clear that Israel could not be taken to the ICC retroactively
for any alleged war crimes committed before the UN votes to recognise
Palestinian statehood.

Israeli officials are particularly concerned over an investigation of its assault on Gaza four years ago, Operation Cast Lead, which was widely condemned as a war crime because of the scale of Palestinian deaths and the level of destruction.

The Palestinians have already drawn up the necessary application to go to the ICC. It caused consternation when the chief Palestinian negotiator, Saeb Erekat, presented ths document at a meeting with the US secretary of state, Hillary Clinton, earlier this month.

A Palestinian close to the talks quoted Clinton as responding: “Don’t you even go there.”

Britain and the US also want Abbas to agree to begin negotiations immediately with the Israeli prime minister, Binyamin Netanyahu. The Palestinian leadership is demanding evidence that Israel is serious about talks after years of futile discussions during which the Jewish state continued its rapid expansion of settlements in the West Bank and other measures to seize land the Palestinians regard as part of a future state.

Nabil Shaath, the Palestinian official who has played a leading role in shaping the statehood request, told the Guardian before leaving for the meeting in New York that the Israeli assault on Gaza strengthened the case for seeking UN recognition. He said the Palestinian leadership would not be deterred by threats, such as the warnings from Washington and Israel that they could cut funds to the Palestinian Authority.

“Not to go to the UN would be suicidal for the Palestinian Authority. All these people [in Gaza] took the brunt of the attack and now we should chicken out because they [the US and Israel] will cut off some money? What we’re doing is not violent; it’s not military; it’s not illegal,” he said. “The world should see that if they keep maintaining the status quo, it will get you nothing but more bloodshed. That’s the lesson from Gaza.”

Shaath said the vote was an important test of whether there was a future for diplomacy, when talks had produced almost no progress toward a Palestinian state in years.

“Clinton just a few days before Gaza said it would be a very long time before the Palestinian issue is going to get attention. Which means what: we only get attention when we use force? If we get this vote, people will feel nonviolence produces results; if we do not, they will reach the opposite conclusion,” he said.

Later, Shaath told a meeting with foreign diplomats it would be “immoral” for their countries to oppose the statehood resolution. The Palestinian Authority has warned countries with embassies in Ramallah, including Bosnia and Cameroon, that if they do not support the UN move they will be expelled.

The US, Israel and European countries have accepted that attempts to get the Palestinians to back down from seeking UN recognition have failed and that the move is all but guaranteed to pass, with the support of a majority of the general assembly. But Washington and London are putting considerable pressure on the Palestinian leadership over the ICC because, as one European official put it, “taking Israel to the court is a real red line”.

For now, it appears the Palestinian leadership would prefer to retain the option to go to the ICC as a bargaining chip for future negotiations. But the pressure will only grow in meetings in New York immediately before the vote.

Britain says it is concerned at the Israeli response to Palestinian statehood after Israel’s foreign minister, Avigdor Lieberman, has threatened to cancel all or parts of the Oslo peace accords and topple Abbas from power. And the UK says the statehood bid could end up harming Palestinian interests if the Israeli reaction is so severe that it sets back the prospects for peace.

But Palestinian officials are dismissive of the argument, saying there is no peace process to speak of and that Israel has done little to enhance Abbas’s credibility by continuing to expand Jewish settlements and treating him with contempt.

Britain also pressed the Palestinians to delay the vote until after the Israeli general election, in January, fearing that Netanyahu’s response may be made stronger by electoral considerations.

Israel recognises that the general assembly is all but certain to back the Palestinian move so it has focused its efforts on pressing European governments in particular to oppose or abstain in an effort to deny the vote legitimacy. Israel reasons that if most European governments and the US fail to support implicit recognition of a Palestinian state then it will be able to argue that Abbas has only the backing of dictatorships and less free countries.

European attempts to forge a common position have foundered, with Germany opposing the Palestinian request and France’s president, François Hollande, wavering but then favouring it again.

Britain has also come under pressure from Arab countries that have made clear they regard the vote as a test of whether the UK is serious about pressing a solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

The Israeli push against the statehood bid includes cartoons on YouTube that show Netanyahu and world leaders gathered around a dinner table waiting for Abbas to arrive for peace talks.

“I am on my way to the UN. I am not coming to the table,” he says.

A second video shows Abbas driving a bus toward a cliff by pursuing the UN bid.

The Palestinians chose 29 November as the date to submit the statehood request because it is the anniversary of the 1947 UN decision to partition British-mandate Palestine between Israel and an Arab state.

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Eurozone crisis will cost world’s poorest countries $238bn

Overseas Development Institute says knock-on effect of sovereign debt crisis will hit trade, aid and investment

The world’s poorest countries will receive a $238bn (£152bn) hit from Europe’s sovereign debt crisis as the knock-on effects from weak growth and austerity in the single currency zone affect trade, aid, investment and remittances, one of the UK’s development institutes said.

A study by the Overseas Development Institute showed export-dependent emerging nations were vulnerable to a prolonged downturn in Europe triggered by fears of a break-up of monetary union.

Research found weaker demand in Europe for imports from low and low-to-middle income countries would have a marked impact on growth. In what it called a “bombshell” for poor nations, the ODI said the cumulative output loss in 2012 and 2013 would amount to $238bn.

The European Union is the biggest economic unit in the global economy and is the largest export market for countries in the developing world. The ODI said a 1% drop in global export demand could hit growth in poor countries by up to 0.5%, with Mozambique, Kenya, Niger, Cameroon, Cape Verde and Paraguay most at risk from the eurozone crisis.

Many developing countries, including the world’s poorest region, Sub-Saharan Africa, have enjoyed growth in recent years, partly due to the strong demand for their raw material and commodities from China and other fast-growing nations.

Author Isabella Massa said: “There are three broad ways in which the eurozone crisis will affect developing countries – through financial contagion, as a knock-on effect of fiscal consolidation in Europe to meet austerity needs, and through a drop in the value of currencies pegged to the euro.”

The ODI report says, Côte d’Ivoire relies on exports to the EU for over 17% of its GDP, while in Mozambique and Nigeria the figure was about 14% and 10% respectively. Tajikistan was most dependent on remittances in 2010, with up to 40% of GDP coming from citizens abroad.

Liberia and Democratic Republic of the Congo were dependent on foreign direct investment in 2010, with inward FDI as a share of GDP equal to over 25% and 20% respectively. Niger followed with a value of inward FDI as a share of GDP equal to 17%.

Robert Zoellick, outgoing president of the World Bank, warned developing countries that they needed to prepare for a renewed wave of global financial turbulence stemming from Europe, and said they should put their finances in order so they had scope to ease policy.

The Bank has already pencilled in an easing of growth rates in the developing world this year to 5.3%.

Massa said: “Poor countries are vulnerable to the euro crisis not only because of their exposure (due to dependence on trade flows, remittances, private capital flows and aid) but also because of their weaker resilience compared to 2007, before the onset of the global financial crisis.

“The ability of developing countries to respond to the shock waves emanating from the euro area crisis is likely to be constrained if international finance dries up and global conditions deteriorate sharply.”

In order to weather the crisis, the ODI advised developing countries should continue to focus on the goals of solid public finances and economic stability as long-term goals, but should also “spur aggregate domestic demand, promote export diversification in both markets and products, improve financial regulation, endorse long-term growth policies, and strengthen social safety nets.

“For their part, multilateral institutions should ensure that adequate funds and shock facilities are put in place in a coordinated way to provide effective and timely assistance to crisis-affected countries.”

The ODI report said that the ability of developing countries to respond to the shock waves emanating from the euro area crisis was likely to be constrained if flows of international finance dried up and if the global economy took another turn for the worse.

“The escalation of the euro crisis and the fact that growth rates in emerging BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) economies, which have been the engine of the global recovery after the 2008–9 financial crisis, are now slowing down make the current situation really worrying for developing countries.”

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