Salva Kiir Comes to His Sense (Sorta)

Kiir has come under enormous pressure, including the threat of international sanctions. And now, it looks like he’ll sign a peace deal. But will he actually abide by it? “South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir has finally agreed to sign a peace deal and power-sharing accord to end a 20-month civil war, his spokesman said Tuesday…Sources in IGAD also confirmed plans for the deal to be signed in Juba on Wednesday, with Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta, Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn and chief mediator Seyoum Mesfin due to attend. An IGAD official said rebel leader Machar would not be there because security provisions were not yet in place.” (AP

Whither Accountability? A UN report details horrific abuses committed by South Sudanese government soldiers. “The U.N. experts found that a government offensive in oil-producing Unity State between April and July this year had been “intent on rendering communal life unviable and prohibiting any return to normalcy following the violence.” “The intensity and brutality of violence aimed at civilians is hitherto unseen, in what has been so far — without a doubt — an incredibly violent conflict, where civilians have been targeted by all parties to the conflict,” the experts wrote in the interim reported submitted to U.N. Security Council members. Under a so-called “scorched earth policy” government-allied forces razed entire villages, sometimes with people inside their homes, raped women and abducted children, the experts said.

Water Used As Weapon in Syrian War…Disturbing new report from UNICEF. “In recent months, up to five million people living in cities and communities across the country have suffered the consequences of long and sometimes deliberate interruptions to their water supplies.In the northern city of Aleppo, where fighting has crippled the main pumping station for months at a time, UNICEF has recorded 18 deliberate water cuts this year alone. Taps in some communities were left dry for up to 17 days in a row – and for over a month in some areas of the city.” (UNICEF

Quote of the day: “Let’s not pretend that what the EU and its member states are doing is working. Migration is here to stay,” Francois Crepeau, the U.N. special rapporteur on the human rights of migrants. (AP


A teenage suicide bomber detonated an explosive device strapped to her body in the northeastern Nigerian city of Damaturu early on Tuesday, killing six people and wounding about 30, police said. (Reuters

Around 1.5 million Zimbabweans are predicted to go hungry this year after a dramatic fall in maize production, the World Food Programme said on Tuesday. (Reuters

Cameroon says it is banning and destroying cheap vegetable oil imported from Indonesia and Malaysia to protect its home industries. The central African nation says thousands of workers may lose their jobs if the country continues to import cheaper vegetable oil. (VOA

The chairman of Nigeria’s corruption-fighting Economic and Financial Crimes Commission is appearing before the Senate to answer accusations that he diverted billions of dollars. (AP

Pest experts from across Africa have recommended vast vaccination and pest eradication programs to stop trans-border animal diseases that claim between 10 percent and 20 percent of the continent’s animals yearly. The experts are gathered in the Cameroonian capital, Yaounde, under the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization’s program. (VOA

Gangs of children are roaming the streets of Ivory Coast’s biggest city. Known as “les microbes” (French for “the germs”), they are accused of violent robberies — and have become the scourge of Abidjan, where they are spreading terror among residents. (GlobalPost

Hundreds of movie lovers gathered in front of a giant outdoor screen in Nairobi’s Mathare slum on Monday at the start of the Slum Film Festival, which aims to challenge perceptions of shanty towns as dens of crime and squalor. (TRF


Unidentified gunmen raided the office of the International Committee of the Red Cross in the Yemeni port city of Aden on Monday, holding staff at gunpoint and stealing cars, cash and equipment, a spokeswoman said on Tuesday. (Reuters

Saudi Arabia has executed at least 175 people over the past 12 months, on average one person every two days, according to a report released Tuesday by Amnesty International. (AP

Around 5,300 migrants, mainly from Sub-Saharan Africa, were rescued in the Mediterranean off the Libyan coast last week, EU border agency Frontex said Tuesday. (AFP


Nepal police shot dead a protester as fresh clashes erupted in the country’s southern plains Tuesday, a day after an 18-month-old boy and seven officers died during demonstrations against a new constitution. (AFP

The International Atomic Energy Agency said on Tuesday it received substantive amounts of information from Iran aimed at quelling concerns its nuclear past had military elements, although it was too early to say whether any of it is new. (Reuters

India and the United Nations appealed for all parties to seek peace in Nepal, where hundreds of security forces on Tuesday were patrolling a western town after ethnic protesters demanding statehood attacked police a day earlier, leaving 11 people dead and many injured. (AP

An intensifying El Nino may bring the worst drought in 20 years to Papua New Guinea, the country’s prime minister said, raising fears that production of the country’s critical agricultural commodities may drop. (Reuters

The “waterman of India” will walk across five continents to raise awareness for his campaign to have the human rights to river water and access to nature recognised by the UN. (Guardian

The Americas

U.S. stocks jumped at the open after China’s central bank cut interest rates to support its economy. (AP

Gay rights activists in Panama presented a bill to lawmakers that would make hate crimes against gays, lesbians and transsexuals illegal — and punishable by up to a year in jail. (AFP

Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro vowed to extend a crackdown on illegal migrants from neighboring Colombia he blames for rampant crime and widespread shortages, while authorities across the border struggled to attend to droves of returning. (VOA

Colombia has condemned deportations of its citizens after Venezuela closed its border with its western neighbour last week. The crossings were shut after an attack by smugglers left three soldiers and a civilian injured. (BBC

…and the rest

The U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees says nearly 300,000 refugees and migrants have arrived in Europe across the Mediterranean Sea this year. Most went to Italy and Greece. The UNHCR warns the situation is not sustainable and is calling for a comprehensive solution. (VOA

As demand for water grows, the world must focus on how the precious resource will be shared among farmers, the energy sector and cities if it is to achieve the United Nations’ new development agenda, a World Bank expert said. (TRF

Photo essay: The race to beat Hungary’s border fence (IRIN


Do we still care about the F word? (IRIN

Confessions of a humanitarian: ‘The life of a veggie aid worker is no bed of kale’ (Guardian

Thailand, One Week After the Bombings. Is Another Free Speech Crackdown Coming? (UN Dispatch

Development under conflict: How to react to a crisis (Devex

Buying condoms won’t make you Africa’s “HERO” (WhyDev

China bashing: American campaign ritual or harbinger of tougher policy? (The Interpreter

5 trends that explain why civil society space is under assault around the world (From Poverty to Power

A U.S. Court Jeopardizes Corporate Transparency Rules, in the Name of Free Speech (Global Anticorruption Blog

Rwanda’s gender gap: banks must stop failing female entrepreneurs (Guardian

Why the New Sustainable Development Goals Won’t Make the World a Fairer Place (The Conversation



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Remarks by the President at the Young African Leaders Initiative Presidential Summit Town Hall

Omni Shoreham Hotel
Washington, D.C. 

11:15 A.M. EDT

THE PRESIDENT:  Well, hello, everybody!  (Applause.)

AUDIENCE:  Happy birthday to you!  Happy birthday to you!  Happy birthday, Mr. President, happy birthday to you!  (Applause.)  

THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you.  Everybody sit down.  Thank you so much.  (Applause.)  Well, this is a good crowd here!  (Applause.)  First of all, can everybody please give Grace another big round of applause.  (Applause.)  Not only does she do incredibly inspiring work in Nigeria, but I have to say, following Grace is a little bit like following Michelle.  (Laughter.)  She’s so good that you kind of feel bad when you’re walking out, because you’re thinking, I’m not going to be that good.  (Laughter.)  But she’s just one example of the incredible talent that’s in this room.  

And to all of you, I know that you’ve been here in the United States for just a few weeks, but let me say on behalf of the American people, welcome to the United States.  We are thrilled to have you here.  (Applause.)   

And your visit comes at a perfect time, because, yes, it’s soon my birthday and that’s a very important thing.  (Laughter.) But that’s not the main reason it’s a perfect time.  The main reason is because, as many of you know, I just returned from Africa.  And it was my fourth trip to sub-Saharan Africa, more than any other U.S. President.  And I was proud to be the first U.S. President to visit Kenya, — (applause) — the first to visit Ethiopia, — (applause) — the first to address the African Union, which was a great honor.  (Applause.)

And the reason I’ve devoted so much energy to our work with the continent is, as I said last week, even as Africa continues to confront many challenges, Africa is on the move.  It’s one of the fastest-growing regions in the world.  Africa’s middle class is projected to grow to more than one billion consumers.  With hundreds of millions of mobile phones and surging access to the Internet, Africans are beginning to leapfrog old technologies into new prosperity.  The continent has achieved historic gains in health, from fighting HIV/AIDS to making childbirth safer for women and babies.  Millions have been lifted from extreme poverty.  So this is extraordinary progress.    

And young people like you are driving so much of this progress — because Africa is the youngest continent.  I saw the power of youth on my trip.  In Kenya, Richard Ruto Todosia helped build Yes Youth Can, one of the county’s most prominent civil society groups, with over one million members.  At the Global Entrepreneurship Summit in Nairobi, Shadi Sabeh spoke about how he started Brilliant Footsteps Academy in Nigeria, which uses education to fight religious extremism and provide more opportunities for Muslim youth.  I met Judith Owigar, an entrepreneur who co-founded a nonprofit that trains young women living in the slums of Nairobi in computer programming and graphic design — and then helps place them in tech jobs. 

So I saw the talent of young people all across the continent.  And as President, I want to make sure that even as we’re working with governments, we’re also helping to empower young Africans like all of you.  And that’s why I launched YALI  — Young African Leaders Initiative — (applause) — to help you access the resources and the training and the networks that you need to become the next generation of leaders in all areas — in civil society, in business, in government.  

And the response has been overwhelming.  So far, more than 140,000 young people across Africa have joined our YALI network  — so young Africans with new ideas can connect with each other, and collaborate and work together to put their plans into action. And I want to welcome all of the YALI network members across Africa who are watching this town hall today.  I’m proud of all of you.  I’m proud that we’ve made so much progress together, after just a few years.  (Applause.)  

And last year, I said we’d launch a new set of tools for our YALI network.  So today, we’ve got more than 30 online lessons available on everything from public speaking to how to write a business plan, mentoring, new ways to network across Africa, around the world, new training sessions, meetings with experts on how to launch a startup.  And we’re launching three new online Mandela Washington Fellowship Institute courses so that all members of the YALI network can access some of the great ideas that you’ve been sharing. 

Last year, I said that we would create YALI Regional Leadership Centers across Africa to provide skills, networks, and opportunities to even more young African leaders.  And in Kenya, I had a chance to visit the Regional Leadership Center in Nairobi.  Just this morning, we opened a new center in Accra.  And two more will be opened by the end of the year — in Pretoria and in Dakar.  (Applause.)    

Last year, I said we would do even more to support young entrepreneurs with grants to help you start a business or nonprofit, and with new training for thousands of aspiring entrepreneurs in small towns and rural areas.  So at the recent Global Entrepreneurship Summit in Nairobi, I announced that we secured more than $1 billion in new commitments from banks and philanthropists to support emerging entrepreneurs around the world, including in Africa — with half the money going to support women and young people.  (Applause.)  

And last year, I welcomed our first class of Mandela Fellows.  This year, the response was overwhelming again — nearly 30,000 applied.  And today I’m honored to welcome you, the second Mandela Washington Fellows class.  We’re on track to double the Mandela Washington Fellowship program to 1,000 fellows by next year.  (Applause.)    

And I know you’ve been busy.  Over the past few weeks, at schools and businesses all across America, you’ve been taking courses, developing the skills you’ll need to make your ideas a reality, so that you’re able to continue the great work that you’re already doing, but take it to the next level. 

That’s what Brian Bwembya of Zambia plans to do.  Where’s Brian?  Where is he?  (Applause.)  There he is right there.  So Brian uses music to advocate against things like gender-based violence and to educate youth on HIV/AIDS.  (Applause.)  So while in the U.S., he’s learned about our health care system, met the founder of an American HIV/AIDS organization, and now he plans to start a record label for music about social change.  So, Brian, we’re proud to be your partner.  (Applause.)  

Or we’ve got Kadijah Diallo of Guinea.  Where is Kadijah?  (Applause.)  There she is.  So Kadijah helped lead UNICEF’s media campaign to stop the spread of Ebola.  And with the management skills that she gained at Wagner College, she wants to work on improving the lives of women and girls back home in Guinea.  So we are proud to be your partner.  (Applause.) 

Or we’ve got Jamila Mayanja of Uganda.  Are you posing?  (Laughter.)  She’s posing.  Jamila is not a fashion model — that’s not — (laughter) — she started a door-to-door laundry company to employ more youth and teach them entrepreneurial skills.  And she hopes to take what she learned during her time at Dartmouth University to meet her goal of getting 1,000 youth to work in or run their own business.  So we’re proud to be your partner, Jamila.  (Applause.)  
So that’s just a sampling of the incredible projects that are being done by fellows all across Africa.  So this program is going to help all of you make a real difference back home.  

But Fatou Ba Ndiour from Senegal — (applause) — where’s Fatou?  So Fatou wrote me a letter and she said, if the real value of YALI is for young people to learn from others, then maybe we should start sending some young Americans to Africa also.  (Applause.)  And she made the point, not just to help poor communities as they usually do, “but to learn from other societies, with humility” — which I thought is absolutely true.  
So I have good news, Fatou.  From now on, YALI will give Americans an opportunity.  (Applause.)  Next summer, up to 80 young American leaders will join YALI and go to Africa to learn from you and your countries.  (Applause.)  And you guys are going to have to look after them when they’re there.  (Laughter.)  Show them good places — but not to have too much fun.  (Laughter.)  They need to be doing some work while they’re there.

So these connections and partnerships and friendships, they forge an understanding that brings our peoples closer together.  After six weeks here, some of you are now officially Texas Longhorns or Notre Dame Fighting Irish.  (Applause.)  You’ve shared African cooking with your American friends, but you’ve also had a burger and a hotdog at Fourth of July celebrations.  (Laughter.)  I’m told many of you went bowling for the first time.


THE PRESIDENT:  I hear it didn’t go that well.  (Laughter.) There were a few strikes.  By the way, there was at least one marriage that came out of last year’s class.  (Applause.)   So who knows what might happen here.  (Laughter.)  

So as your time in America comes to a close, I want you to remember this is really just the beginning.  We just started this.  And the truth is that our greatest challenges — whether it’s inclusive development, or confronting terrorism, dealing with conflict, climate change, increasing women’s rights, children’s rights — these are bigger than any one nation or even one continent.  

Our hope is, is that 10, 15, 20 years from now, when you’ve all gone on to be ministers in government, or leaders in business, or pioneers of social change, that you’ll still be connecting with each other, that you’ll still be learning from each other, and that together, you’ll be reaching back and helping the next generation — that you’ll not only be making a difference in your own countries, but you’ll be the foundation of a new generation of global leadership, a generation that’s going to be working together across borders to make the world safer and more prosperous and more peaceful and more just.  That’s my hope for you.

We’ve brought you here because we benefit from your leadership, but we’re counting on you to work together to make sure that you’re also reaching back to those who are going to be coming behind you.  Couldn’t be prouder of you.

So with that, let me take some questions, all right?  Thank you very much.  (Applause.)  

All right.  So here are the — I think you’ve been told how this works, but I’m going to just repeat it.  I’m just going to call on as many people as possible.  When I call on you, introduce yourself, tell me what country you’re from.  Make your question relatively short — (laughter) — so that we can get as many questions in as possible.  And I’m going to go boy, girl, boy, girl — to make sure that it’s fair.  All right?  Okay.  So let me see who I’m going to start off with.  This is all such a good-looking group.  I’m going to start with this young lady right here.  Right here.  Right in the middle.  Yes, there you go — with the African earrings.  Very appropriate.

Q    I’m from Kenya.


Q    Mzuri sana.  Yes.  And my question is, I’m curious how you keep the balance in terms of your background as an African American and the kind of struggles you’ve had to get over to get here — and being to married Michelle Obama — she’s powerful and amazing — and as a father, as a husband.  But you seem to not let that interfere with your work, and you’ve been effective.  So how do you keep the balance?  

THE PRESIDENT:  Well, first of all, I wouldn’t be who I was without Michelle.  So she’s my partner.  (Applause.)  That’s true professionally, but that’s true in terms of my character and who I am.  One of the things I’m very proud of is the fact that I married someone who is strong, and talented, and opinionated, and my equal.  And part of the reason why that’s so important to me is because she’s the role model now for my daughters.  And so Malia and Sasha, they have expectations of being strong and talented, and being treated as an equal by their partners as they get older — much older.  (Laughter.)  

The balance — I’ve written about this.  The balance isn’t always perfect.  I think one of the things that my generation, but now even more your generation, has to manage is, if you have two people working in the house, outside the home, how do you manage that in a way that we’re both good parents, we’re both able to succeed in our work.  And what Michelle and I found was that we had to recognize that at any given point in our careers, one person might sacrifice a little bit — maybe this was a time that she really had to focus on something, and so I had to cover for her more.  There were times where I was able to do something and she had to handle things more.

Now, I’m not suggesting that it’s been completely equal, because I’m the first one to acknowledge that she’s probably made more sacrifices, given the nature of a political career, than I have.  But what I’ve learned from her is that if she doesn’t feel respected and fulfilled, then I’m going to end up being less successful, ultimately.  And that’s something that I think that men in Africa, in particular — men everywhere — (laughter) — but men in Africa — I’ve spoken about this a lot.  The best measure of how a country does economically in terms of development is how does it treat its women.  (Applause.)  

And as I said in a speech — a couple of the speeches that I gave while I was in Kenya and Ethiopia — if you’re mistreating your women, then you’re just holding yourself back, you’re holding yourself down.  You may have some false sense of importance, but ultimately you don’t benefit if women are being discriminated against, because that means when they’re working, your family is going to have less income.  If they’re not educated, that means your children are less likely to be well educated, because, typically, the mother is the first educator of a child.  So if they see you disrespecting your wife, then what lesson is your — not just your girls, but what lessons are your sons learning from you?  

And so this is something that I really think everybody, especially the young generation of African men, have to learn and internalize.  And I want to see more men creating peer pressure among themselves.  If you see a friend of yours, a classmate, one of your buddies abusing a woman, you have to say something.  You have to ostracize them and say that’s not acceptable.  Because, ultimately, this is not just an issue of laws — although here in the United States we’re still fighting for equal pay for equal work; we’re still fighting to make sure that women have the same opportunities as men — but it’s also a matter of culture and what our expectations are.  And your generation is going to have to change expectations.  

You do not lift yourself up by holding somebody else down.  And that’s especially true within your own family and the people that you’re closest to.  (Applause.) 

All right.  That young men right there, in the striped shirt.  Yes, you.  

Q    Thank you, Mr. President.  I am from Rwanda.  (Applause.)    

THE PRESIDENT:  You have a little cheering section here.  (Laughter.)  Got the flags.

Q    Mr. President, there is a big problem of climate change, and research has showed that Africa will be the most vulnerable continent to climate change in the next decades.  Africa is the continent which is responsible to climate change mitigation, and it is reducing the greenhouse gases and the global warming.  And I saw that Africa was the last continent to get the funding for climate change mitigation and adaptation.  So my question is to ask you what is the plan of the United States of America to empower Africa so that our community can adapt themselves to the climate change in the next future?  Thank you. (Applause.) 

THE PRESIDENT:  Well, first of all, this generation has to understand that climate change is going to be one of the critical issues that you face.  Now, oftentimes you’ll hear people say, well, environmental issues, climate change, we don’t have time to worry about that right now because we have much more urgent issues — we have to educate our children, we have to feed people, we have to develop — maybe later we can worry about environmental issues — which I understand why a lot of African countries and poorer countries in Asia or Latin America or other places would say that, because historically, that’s basically what the United States and developed countries did.  

The United States used to be terribly polluted.  If you went to Los Angeles, you couldn’t — it was like Beijing is now.  It was very hard to breathe if you ran outside.  You had lakes and rivers that were so polluted that one of them caught fire.  (Laughter.)  That’s serious; that’s some pollution there.  The same is true in London when London was first developing during the Industrial Revolution, because of all the coal that was being burned, and the soot.  

Here’s the problem.  Whether it’s fair or not, the issue of climate change is not like traditional environmental issues in the sense that’s it’s just isolated in one area.  Global climate change will affect everybody.  And because the changes could be so severe, frankly, the countries that are most likely to be adversely affected are the poorer countries because they have less margin for error.

So if you have changing weather patterns in, let’s say, the Indian Subcontinent, and the monsoon rains shift, suddenly you could have millions of people whose crops completely fail.  Well, the same is true in Africa — if rain patterns and drought starts changing, subsistence farmers are completely vulnerable.  If you are in coastal communities, and the oceans begin to rise, millions of people could be displaced.

So this is something that everybody is going to have to take seriously.  Now, what we’re going to be doing is, here in the United States, we are initiating some of the most aggressive action to start reducing the emission of carbon that produces climate change.  There’s going to be a Paris conference later this year in which we’re organizing China and other countries that are big carbon emitters to participate, and set targets for reduction of carbon pollution.

Now, Africa, per capita, doesn’t produce that much carbon.  So some African countries have said, well, why should we have to do anything?  Well, the answer is, is that you have to project where you’re going to be 20 years from now or 30 years from now. If you get locked in now in, for example, the way you producing energy that’s producing a lot of carbon, given the youth of Africa and its rising population, you could end up being the major carbon emitter if you don’t take plans now.

So what we’re saying is, learn from our mistakes and find new, sustainable ways of generating energy that don’t produce carbon.  

When I was in Nairobi, I highlighted the work we’re doing with something called Power Africa, which has generated billions of dollars with the goal of electrification throughout sub-Saharan Africa.  But part of what we’re trying to encourage countries to do is don’t automatically take the old models; think about new models of energy production, and try to leapfrog over the old models.

So, for example, with solar energy, we were looking at solar panels that you could send into rural areas, put on the roof of a hut, and for the same price per day that people are purchasing kerosene, they could have a small — solar panels and pack that generates light and provides what they need.  And in fact, it will pay for itself in a year, and then they’ll save money after that.  

And so, in the same way that you’ve seen banking and financial transactions off smartphones, cellphones, leapfrogging some of the old ways of doing business in advanced countries, the same has to be true for energy.  And we want to encourage new models.  We are going to be providing — the United States and other wealthier countries are going to be providing billions of dollars in money for adaptation and mitigation.  But what’s more urgent is how do we create the energy that’s needed for Africa’s growth and development in a way that does not make the problem worse, but instead makes the problem better.

All right?  (Applause.)  Okay, this young lady right here.  You’ve got the mic coming.

Q    Hello.  I’m from Mauritania and I’m 23 years old.  So my question is simple:  You, as a President, and you as a citizen — a U.S. citizen, will you, after leaving the White House, keep up this program?  Because we still need it.  (Applause.)  

THE PRESIDENT:  Yes.  It is a simple question, and I’ve got a simple answer:  Yes.  (Applause.)  Now, here’s what we’re going to try to do.  We want to institutionalize the program so that the next President and future Presidents and the United States government continue to sustain the program.  (Applause.)  So that’s going to be important.

And since I still have this job for the next 18 months, I haven’t been completely focused on what I’m going to do afterwards.  (Laughter.)  The first thing I’m probably going to do is I’m going to catch up on my sleep.  (Laughter.)  So I’m going to do that for a couple months.  (Laughter.)  But I can guarantee you that one of the things I’m interested in doing when I leave office is to continue to create these platforms for young leadership across the globe, to network, get relationships, to work together, to learn with each other.  (Applause.)  

And by the way, it’s not just in Africa.  So we’ve set up a young leaders program in Asia.  We’re doing the same thing in Latin America.  Because the goal is, eventually I want not only for there to be a network of thousands of young African leaders who know each other across borders, are sharing best practices, sharing ideas, but I also want you to know young leaders in Indonesia, or young leaders in Chile, or young leaders around the globe.  

Because I said before, ultimately you’re going to be global leaders, not just leaders in your own country.  It begins in your own countries where you can make your mark, but one of the powerful things about technology and the Internet right now is you can learn and forge relationships and learn best practices from everyplace.  So if you’re an advocate for women’s rights, and you’re doing great work in Nigeria, it may be that somebody in Burma can, on the Internet, see how you organized your campaign and how you were able to finance it and what you were able to accomplish, and suddenly what you’ve done in one country becomes a model for action all across the world.

So this is going to be a top priority of mine.  I will definitely continue to be involved in that.  All right?  (Applause.)  

Let’s see, I’ve got to call on a man now.  Let’s see.  Let’s see.  I’m going to call on this guy right there.  Yes, you right there — just because I like that hat.  (Laughter.)  That’s a sharp-looking hat right there.  

Q    I come from Madagascar.  

THE PRESIDENT:  There you go.

Q    We Madagascar fellows are involved in the environmental entrepreneurship.  So what is the commitment of the United States towards young entrepreneurship and climate change?

THE PRESIDENT:  Well, as I said before, we are pledging — we’ve got a billion dollars for entrepreneurship; half of it we are going to direct towards women entrepreneurs and young people who are entrepreneurs, because they’ve been underrepresented in terms of access to capital.  And as I mentioned to the young man earlier, the opportunities for entrepreneurship related to clean energy, related to conservation — which oftentimes, in a place like Madagascar, involves tourism and ecotourism — there’s huge potential there if it’s done properly.

So the key is, in some cases, just the access to financing. But part of what you’ve learned, hopefully, with YALI is part of it is also having a well-thought-out plan.  Now, not everybody can afford to go to a fancy business school and graduate and have all the credentials, but that doesn’t mean you don’t have a good idea.  And one of the things that we’re trying to do, particularly through online learning, is to create some of the basic concepts for how a business or a nonprofit can get started, how it can be properly managed, how you can do the accounting in a way that’s efficient.  We want to make sure that we are a continuing partner for you as you start your business and you learn.

And this is where these regional networks that we’re setting up is also useful, because not only will we have online learning but these regional hubs, initially in four regions of Africa, allow you to continue to network and access through the U.S. embassy, or the chambers of commerce, or private sector participants who are partnering with us, so that you can have hands-on mentoring and learning as you are developing your business plans, and as you’re trying to move forward.

The one thing, for those of you who are entrepreneurs or aspiring entrepreneurs, to remember is all around the world, even in the United States, not every idea succeeds.  So if you want to be an entrepreneur and start a business, you have to believe with all your heart that you’re going to succeed, but then when — and if — one of the businesses fails, you’ve got to be able to get up, dust yourself off, figure out what you’ve learned, and then start another business.  And eventually, it’s from continually refining your ideas and exploring what works and understanding what your market is and what consumers are looking for, that eventually, you have a chance to succeed.  

Okay.  It’s a young woman’s turn now.  Well, she’s just dancing over here, so we’ll have to call on her.  (Laughter.)  That doesn’t mean, by the way, everybody should dance.  (Laughter.)  I just wanted to point that out.  Go ahead.

Q    Mr. President, thank you.  I’m from Cameroon.  And I would like to find out if you will support Africa’s condition for permanency at the U.N. Security Council.  Thank you.  (Applause.) 

THE PRESIDENT:  So the Security Council was formed after World War II, and obviously the world and the balance of power around the world looked very different in 1945, 1946, ’47 than it does in 2015, ’16 and ’17.  So the United States is supportive in concept of modifications to the structure of the United Nations Security Council.  I will be honest with you — how that happens, and how you balance all the equities is complicated.  As a matter of principle, I would think that there should at least be one representative from the African continent on the Security Council, along with representatives from the other regions of the world and some of the other powers that have emerged.  

I will tell you that — because, for example, Latin America does not have a country that’s represented — it does get complicated, because you have to figure out how — let me put it this way.  Everybody probably thinks they should be on it.  And so even in Africa, if you started saying, okay, let’s say we should have an African — is it South Africa?  Is it Nigeria?  Is it — see?  (Laughter.)  Uganda?  See?  Suddenly everybody was thinking, well, why not me?  The same is true in — Japan considers itself, as one of the largest economies in the world, suitable.  Brazil thinks it should be on.  India, the world’s largest democracy.

So we’re going to have to design a process whereby all these various legitimate arguments are sorted through.  But what I very much believe is that for the United Nations Security Council to be effective, it has to be more representative of all the various trend lines that have occurred over the last several decades.

One thing I will say, though, about the United Nations — everybody wants a seat at the table, but sometimes people don’t want the responsibilities of having a seat at the table.  And that’s happening even now.  And the one thing I’ve learned, both in my personal life and in my political life, is that if you want more authority, then you also have to be more responsible.  You can’t wear the crown if you can’t bear the cross.  

And oftentimes, in the United Nations — which I’m very committed to, and the agencies there do a lot of really critical important work — but when it comes to, okay, who’s going to actually step up and contribute to peacekeeping, who’s going to actually write a check when it comes to making sure that we’re dealing with the Ebola crisis, who’s going to show leadership in tackling climate change — are you willing to speak out on issues even when it contradicts your own interests, or when it’s politically hard, or when it’s uncomfortable — if you’re not willing to do those things, this is not just something where, okay, I got a membership key to the club and now I’m just going to show off how important I am.  And you see that sometimes.  This happens — and sometimes it happens at our own agencies.  

On human rights, when I was in Kenya, I said that it’s not enough for the United States always to be the heavy who has to point out that it’s unsuitable for leaders to ignore their constitution and try to cling on to power.  Their neighbors have to speak up as well, even if it’s uncomfortable.  (Applause.)  

So my attitude is, if you want to participate then you have to recognize that you have broader responsibilities.  And that’s something that the United States, by the way, for all our occasional mistakes or flaws, or our policies not perfect all the time, the one thing we do try to be is responsible.  If there’s an earthquake or a tornado or a hurricane somewhere, we’re there. We’re stepping up.  When Ebola happened, we stepped up, even when other people were kind of looking around and trying to figure out, well, I don’t know, what should we do?

And that is part of leadership.  That’s true, by the way, for you individually as well.  You have to be willing to take some risks and do some hard things in order to be a leader.  A leader is not just a name, a title, and privileges and perks.  

Let’s see, I think it’s a gentleman’s turn, isn’t it?  All right.  This guy looks sharp, right here in the corner.  I mean, that’s a serious-looking coat.  Look at that.  (Applause.)  That’s a good-looking coat.  Don’t worry, I’ll call on somebody who’s just wearing a suit at some point.  (Laughter.)

Q    Thank you, Mr. President.  I’m from Cameroon.  So we are very grateful for the American leadership in our fight against violent extremism and the military response.  So my question is, what kind of engagement — what kind of support we can expect from you in building resilient communities, especially along the Sahel, where we are grappling with those issues?

THE PRESIDENT:  Well, this is something that’s very important.  Look, the sources of violence around the world are multiple.  And it’s important for us to recognize that, sadly, the human race has found excuses to kill each other for all sorts of reasons.  In the continent of Africa, oftentimes it’s been along ethnic and tribal lines.  It has nothing to do with religion; it has to do with you speak a slightly different language than me, or you look just a little bit different.  In Northern Ireland it was religious.  In other places, it just has to do with trying to gain power, or a majority group trying to impose its will on a minority group.  So there are all kinds of reasons for violence.  

But one of the phenomena that we are now seeing is a very specific promotion of violent extremism that oftentimes is twisting and distorting and, I think, ultimately, defying the edicts of one of the world’s greatest religions — Islam.  And it’s being exported and turbocharged through social media, and groups like al-Shabaab and ISIL and Boko Haram.  And the question is, how do we fight back against those ideologies in a way that allows us still to be true to the values of peace and tolerance and due process and rule of law.  

So the United States is obviously committed to this fight against terrorism.  And we are working with countries and partnering with countries all around the world to go after whether it’s al Qaeda, Boko Haram.  But what we’ve also said is in order to defeat these extremist ideologies, it can’t just be military, police and security.  It has to be reaching into communities that feel marginalized and making sure that they feel that they’re heard; making sure that the young people in those communities have opportunity.

And that’s why it’s so important to partner with civil society organizations in countries throughout Africa and around the world who can reach young people before ISIL reaches them, before al Shabaab reaches them, and inoculate them from the notion that somehow the solution to their alienation or the source of future opportunity for them is to go kill people.

And that’s why, when I was in Kenya, for example, and I did a town hall meeting there, I emphasized what I had said to President Kenyata — be a partner with the civil society groups. (Applause.)   Because too often, there’s a tendency — because what the extremist groups want to do is they want to divide.  That’s what terrorism is all about.  The notion is that you scare societies, further polarizes them.  The government reacts by further discriminating against a particular group.  That group then feels it has no political outlet peacefully to deal with their grievances.  And that then — that suppression can oftentimes accelerate even more extremism.  

And that’s why reaching out to civil society groups, clergy, and listening and asking, okay, what is it that we need to do in order to make sure that young people feel that they can succeed? What is it that we need to do to make sure that they feel that they’re fully a part of this country and are full citizens, and have full rights?  How do we do that?  Bringing them into plan and design messages and campaigns that embrace the diversity of these countries — those are the things that are so important to do.  

We still have to gain intelligence and engage in effective military and police campaigns to eradicate those who are so brainwashed that all you can do is incapacitate them.  But the question is constantly, how do we make sure that the recruitment of young people into these terrorist organizations, how do we cut off that flow?  And that requires more than just military efforts.  (Applause.)  

All right.  This young lady right here.  Yes, right here in the green and red.  Yes, you.  No, no, no right here.  Go ahead. No, no, no, right here in front.  Yes, you.  Yes, go ahead.  

Q    Thank you, Mr. President.  I’m from Kenya.  And I’m speaking on behalf of my brothers and sisters with albinism from Africa.  As you may know, Mr. President, persons with albinism in Africa are being killed and their body parts harvested for ritual purposes.  My request to you is to raise this issue with the heads of states from African countries to bring these atrocities to an end, for the benefit of for us in this room, and our brothers and sisters back in Africa.  Thank you.  (Applause.)  

THE PRESIDENT:  Okay, good.  Thank you.  Well, can I just say the notion that any African would discriminate against somebody because of the color of their skin, after what black people around the world have gone through, is crazy.  (Applause.) It is infuriating and I have no patience for it.  

When I was in Africa, I said there are important traditions and folkways that need to be respected — that’s part of who each culture is, each country is.  But there’s also just foolish traditions — (applause) — and old ways of doing business that are based in ignorance.  And they need to stop.  And the idea that a society would visit violence on people because of pigmentation, that’s not a tradition that is worth preserving.  That’s tomfoolery.  That’s craziness.  It’s cruel. 

The same is true with practices like genital mutilation.  That just has to stop.  (Applause.)  You don’t do violence to young girls just because your great-grandfather or — because there’s no reason for it other than to suppress woman.  That’s the rationale.  That’s what it’s based on.  Bride abduction — bad tradition.  End it.  Beating women — not a good tradition.  (Applause.)  I don’t care that that used to be how things were done.  

Societies evolve based on new understandings and new science and new appreciation of who we are.  And so we can preserve great traditions — music, food, dance, language, art — but if there’s a tradition anywhere in Africa, or here in the United States, or anywhere in the world that involves treating people differently because you’re scared of them, or because you’re ignorant about them, or because you want to feel superior to them, it’s a bad tradition.  And you have to challenge it.  And you can’t accept excuses for it.

Grace was up here — you heard the power of Grace’s talking. Now, traditionally, people with disabilities are treated differently because people are ignorant.  And when — here in the United States, we passed the Americans Against With Disabilities Act.  And that opened up more opportunities, and suddenly there are ramps so people can access it, and there are computers and new technologies so that people who maybe couldn’t communicate before can communicate.  And it turns out there’s all this talent and brilliance, and people can do these things.  Well, then people’s attitudes have to change, and the societies have to change.  And that’s why young people are so important in changing attitudes.  

The same, by the way, is true for sexual orientation. (Applause.)  I spoke about this in Africa, and everybody is like, oh, oh, we don’t want to hear that.  (Laughter.)  But the truth of the matter is, is that if you’re treating people differently just because of who they love and who they are, then there’s a connection between that mindset and the mindset that led to racism, and the mindset that leads to ethnic conflict.  (Applause.)  It means that you’re not able to see somebody else as a human being.  

And so you can’t, on the one hand, complain when somebody else does that to you, and then you’re doing it to somebody else. You can’t do it.  There’s got to be some consistency to how you think about these issues.  And that’s going to be up to young people — because old people get stuck in their ways.  (Laughter.)  They do.  They do.  And that’s true here in the United States.  

The truth of the matter is, is that when I started running for President, everybody said a black guy names Barack Obama, he’s not going to win the presidency of the United States.  (Laughter.)  But what I was banking on was the fact that with all the problems that still exist in the United States around racial attitudes, et cetera, things have changed, and young people and new generations had suddenly understood that, in Dr. King’s words, you have to be judged not by the color of your skin, but by the contents of your character.  

And that doesn’t mean that everything suddenly is perfect.  It just means that, young people, you can lead the way and set a good example.  But it requires some courage, because the old thinking, people will push back at you.  And if you don’t have the convictions and the courage to be able to stand up for what you think is right, then cruelty will perpetuate itself.  

So you guys are on the spot.  If there’s one thing I want YALI leaders to come out with is that notion of you are strong by taking care of the people who are vulnerable, by looking after the minority, looking after the disabled, looking after the vulnerable.  You’re not strong by putting people down; you’re strong by lifting them up.  (Applause.)  That’s the measure of a leader.

All right, how much time do we got?  I’ve only got time for one more question.  Now, first of all, the women — you’ve to put your hands down because I just asked a woman.  (Laughter.)  So it’s got to be a guy.  And I promised I’d ask a guy in a suit.  (Laughter.)  I’m just going to ask this guy right here.  (Applause.)  Look at him, he’s all buttoning up.  He looks very sharp.

AUDIENCE MEMBER:  That’s my boy!  (Laughter.)    

Q    Thank you, Mr. President.  I’m from Nigeria.  Thank you.  I want to say we appreciate all the great work that the United States is doing with Nigeria and many other African countries, especially as it concerns infrastructure development policies and all of those.  But I’m of the opinion that if we do not make investment in education more than any other sector of the economy, then we are not building a sustainable partnership. (Applause.)  And I’m saying that with respect to the fact that we are all of the intellectual dream that Africa is experiencing.  Due to the fact the grass seemed green on this side and then the United States attracts so many intellectuals, we should have stayed to development and grown these programs.

For example, recently, when you were in Kenya, you launched a project around power and energy.  I’m of the opinion that if that program is going to be successful and sustainable, then all of those programs should include the partnership of universities. (Applause.)  Because through that, we can build the capacity of universities, and then those countries can go around in other African countries replicating that.  So in that case, we can control the dream that is moving from Africa to the West, or to any other part of the country.  (Applause.)  

So I want to ask, what is the United States doing to control this intellectual dream to the Western world?  And what are you doing to increase, more than others, the investment in education so that our partnership and development can be truly sustainable? Thank you.  (Applause.)  

THE PRESIDENT:  Okay, good.  That was good.  That was an excellent question.  It is an excellent question, but I’m going to reverse the question a little bit.  The question is not what is the United States doing to reverse the brain drain.  The question is, what are your countries doing to reverse the brain drain?  (Applause.) 

Now, many of you have friends who study overseas, they study in the West, and then they decide to stay instead of going back home.  Now, the United States, we are partnering with every country here.  I guarantee you there are programs to invest in education in your country.  There are programs to work with the universities in your countries.  I think you make an excellent point that on big projects like Power Africa, we should make sure that there is a capacity-building component.  And in fact, one of the things that’s been done with our development assistance that we’re providing is to emphasize capacity-building.

So, for example, our Feed the Future program, the goal is not to just keep on sending food forever.  The goal is teaching farmers to double or triple or quadruple their yields, which then gives them more income, which then allows them to buy maybe a tractor or to start a cooperative food-processing plant, that then accesses the market and the money gets reinvested, and now you’re building jobs and commerce inside the country as opposed to just being an aid recipient.  So I’m all about capacity-building.  

But ultimately, why is it that you have so many talented, well-educated young Africans leaving instead of staying?  Why is it that you have so many talented, well-educated people from the Middle East or parts of Asia, or Latin America who would rather live here than there?  

The issue is not just that we’re a wealthier country.  I think it’s fair to say — and you know better than I do — but part of it has to do with a young person’s assessment of can I succeed in applying my talents if, for example, the economy is still built on corruption so that I have to pay a bribe or be well-connected in order to start my business.  (Applause.)  Or are there still ethnic rivalries in the country, which means that if I’m from the wrong tribe, I’m less likely to advance.  Or is there still so much sexism in the country that if I’m a woman, then I’m expected just to be at home and be quiet, when I’m a trained doctor.  Or is there a lack of rule of law or basic human rights and freedoms that make me feel as if I am restricted in what I can do.

I make this point to say that some of the brain drain is economic.  But some of it has to do with people’s assessments of if I stay in my country, am I going to have the ability to succeed?  And that’s why, when I talk to leaders in Africa, or anywhere around the world, I say, look, if you put together the basics of rule of law and due process and democracy, and you’re able to keep peace so that there’s not conflict and constant danger, and the government is not corrupt, then even a poor country, you’re going to attract a lot of people who are going to want to live there because they’ll feel like they’re part of building something and are contributing something.

Because the one thing I’ve discovered is — right now, I live in a big house but it’s a lease, you know, I have to give it up in 18 months.  (Laughter.)  A big house is nice for the first month — it’s like, well, this is a really big house.  (Laughter.)  Then, after about two months you realize, I can’t live in all these rooms.  (Laughter.)  My life is not appreciably better once I’ve got the basics.  And I think a lot of young Africans would be much more interested in staying even if they don’t have as big of a house, or the shopping malls aren’t as big, or — if they felt as if the basics are taken care of, I can keep my family safe, I can practice my profession, I’m not going to be discriminated against — (applause) — the government is well-meaning and well-intentioned and is not corrupt, and public investments are being made, then people I think would have a sense of meaning in their lives.

That doesn’t mean that there aren’t going to be some people who would still rather live in London or New York because they think they can make more money.  But I think that, as much as anything we do, is going to reverse the brain drain.  And that’s why what you do is going to be so important, because if you set a good example of going back home and rebuilding your country, and if you, as young leaders, are creating an environment in which young people can succeed and you’re setting a new set of expectations about how exciting it is to be part of something new — that can help turn the tide.

So, good luck.  (Applause.)  Thank you, everybody.  (Applause.)  

12:22 P.M. EDT

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WHO Warns of a Coming Meningitis Outbreak in West Africa

UNICEF, MSF, WHO and the IFRC are urging vaccine manufacturers to ramp up production of the meningitis vaccine. “‘In just the first six months of 2015, there have been 12,000 cases of meningitis C in Niger and Nigeria, and 800 deaths. At the same time, there has been a critical shortage of vaccine,’” said Dr Myriam Henkens, International Medical Coordinator, MSF. ‘The campaigns consequently were limited to the critically affected age groups and areas, and even so, had to be delayed until vaccine supply became available and we believe next year will be worse. We need vaccine manufacturers to plan production of multivalent vaccine now to allow sufficient lead time and capacity to meet this demand.’” (WHO )

Here’s How Many Yemeni’s The UN Can Reach With Humanitarian Aid If Only There Were A Pause in Fighting…The latest attempt at a humanitarian pause in Yemen “has not been respected by any party to the conflict,” the U.N. humanitarian chief said Tuesday, adding that a plan to reach 3 million Yemenis with aid is ready to go if only the fighting would stop. Stephen O’Brien briefed the Security Council and repeated the call for an “unconditional freeze” in the months-long fighting between a Saudi-led coalition and Shiite Houthi rebels in the Arab world’s poorest country. A five-day humanitarian pause announced by the Saudi-led coalition quickly fell apart early Monday. An earlier pause announced this month by the U.N. also failed.” (NYT

Quote of the Day: Obama, at the AU… “I have to say Africa’s democratic progress is also at risk from leaders who refuse to step aside when their terms end,” Obama told delegates from across the continent.

“Let me be honest with you – I just don’t understand this. I am in my second term … I love my work but under our constitution, I cannot run again. I actually think I’m a pretty good president: I think if I ran I could win, but I can’t.” (Guardian

Obama in Africa

During his visit to Ethiopia, U.S. President Barack Obama took the time Tuesday to meet with Ethiopians who have benefited from U.S. development initiatives. (VOA

On Burundi: “When a leader tries to change the rules in the middle of the game just to stay in office, it risks instability and strife, as we’ve seen in Burundi,” said Obama during his remarks to the African Union. (Reuters

U.S. President Barack Obama said on Tuesday that Ethiopia “cannot unleash the full potential of its people” if it jails journalists and restricts legitimate opposition groups. (Reuters


Cameroon will send around 2,000 extra troops to the north of the country to fight Boko Haram, the Nigerian jihadist movement behind bloody cross-border raids and suicide bombings, state television said Tuesday. (AFP

A high court in the Ghanaian capital Accra sentenced a man to a 10-year prison term Tuesday after he confessed to having planned to kill President John Dramani Mahama. (AFP

War-torn Somalia will not be able to hold full elections due next year, lawmakers said Tuesday, although it remained unclear whether some kind of voting process would still be held. (AFP

In between the run-down buildings in a seemingly inauspicious part of Lagos, a city of around 21 million, tech start-ups are taking root and creating a buzz that is drawing international venture capitalists and more established digital firms. (VOA

Mozambique’s president travelled to the country’s northwest where fighting between government troops and opposition fighters has forced hundreds to flee to neighboring Malawi, state-run radio reported on Tuesday. (AP

Kenya will be getting new support to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS among adolescent girls. President Obama announced Sunday that Kenya would be included in the DREAMS project. It’s funded by the U.S., the Nike Foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. (VOA

Corruption is pervasive throughout the asylum process in South Africa, according to a report published this month. (VOA

Thousands of small-scale farmers in Zimbabwe fear they will be going hungry this winter after abandoning traditional staples like maize, sorghum and groundnuts for tobacco, a cash crop known locally in this southern African nation as “green gold.” (VOA

Proposed laws to allow the seizure of land and property to redress the imbalance of ownership between black and white South Africans, could be unconstitutional and subject to the whims of ministers, rights groups told parliament on Tuesday. (Reuters

Former Tanzanian prime minister Edward Lowassa on Tuesday defected from the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi party, accusing it of “oppressive leadership”, less than three months ahead of a general election scheduled for October 25. (AFP


The United Nations human rights office is “deeply disturbed” by death sentences handed down in a trial of former officials who served under Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, it said on Tuesday. (Reuters

Since March, nearly 25,000 people a day have slipped into hunger in Yemen, and every second person – or nearly 13 million people – is now struggling to find enough to eat, according to Oxfam. (Guardian

Human Rights Watch condemned as an “apparent war crime” on Tuesday a Saudi-led air raid in Yemen last week that it said killed at least 65 civilians in residential compounds. (AFP

Insurgents have launched a major offensive on government-held areas in northwestern Syria in a bid to advance towards a coastal region vital to President Bashar al-Assad’s control of the west, a monitoring group and activists said on Tuesday. (Reuters

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan on Tuesday said the formation of a safe zone inside war-torn Syria, free from the Islamic State group, would help the return of 1.7 million refugees. (AFP

A dissident Moroccan journalist on Tuesday ended a monthlong hunger strike protesting his treatment by the government after an official said he could get a new passport in three days, a member of his support committee said. (AP


Thailand has hit back after being blacklisted in a US report for the second consecutive year for not combatting modern-day slavery, arguing it has made serious steps to tackle human trafficking. (Guardian

British Prime Minister David Cameron said on Monday his government would make available loans of up to 1 billion pounds to Indonesia to help finance infrastructure projects. (VOA

South Korea on Tuesday declared the effective end to a deadly outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome that killed 36 people, triggered widespread panic and stymied growth in Asia’s fourth-largest economy. (AFP

The nationwide death toll from this month’s flash floods in various parts of Pakistan rose to 81 on Tuesday as floodwater inundated hundreds of villages, leaving tens of thousands of people homeless, authorities said. (AP

The Americas

Forensic experts in Colombia have begun a search for dozens of bodies at a landfill site believed to be one of the largest urban mass graves in the world. (BBC

UN experts have called on the government of the Dominican Republic to stop the “arbitrary deportations” of Dominicans of Haitian descent, warning that its actions risk violating international laws as well as the country’s own constitution. (Guardian

Brazil’s penitentiaries are notorious for rampant overcrowding and violence endured by all inmates. But advocates say few prisoners are as vulnerable as transvestites and transgender people, who are often singled out for taunting and physical and sexual abuse. (AP

Chilean President Michelle Bachelet on Monday called for citizens to break the pacts of silence that have covered up human rights violations during the 1973-1990 military dictatorship, praising a former soldier who helped the investigation into the burning death of a U.S. resident. (VOA

…and the rest

Rescuers found 13 dead migrants on a boat off the coast of Libya with more than 500 others aboard, an Italian coast guard spokesman said on Tuesday, giving no details about how they had died. (Reuters

A prominent Russian human rights group said on Tuesday it is closing down its operations this week because of a repressive law, but has come up with a plan to continue its work. (AP


Did Obama Avoid the Difficult Questions in Kenya? (OZY

Obama just pulled off two important firsts for a sitting US president (GlobalPost

Justin Forsyth: ‘If NGOs stay politically correct, we won’t have an impact’ (Guardian

On corruption and mass atrocities (Reinventing Peace

Did You Hear About the Great Ebola Land Grab? Expect a Wave of Mystery Plagues (East African

This Nicaraguan native community endured Spanish conquest. Will it survive modern times? (GlobalPost

Drones: a force for good when flying in the face of disaster (Guardian

4 Ways Your Phone May Be Fueling Instability Around the World (UN Dispatch

The things we do: The connection between sleep and poverty (People, Spaces, Deliberation

Where should money go to manage global health’s ‘silent epidemic’? (Devex

Look Out Pelley, Muir And Holt. Rapping Reporters Could Give You A Jolt (Goats and Soda

Learning by un-doing: the magic of immersion (From Poverty to Power
Feeding West Africa: An Agenda for Regional Trade (Africa Can End Poverty



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IRIN's Top picks: Effective altruism, humanitarian complicity and Boko Haram

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Thousands in Cameroon have fled Boko Haram

DUBAI, 24 July 2015 (IRIN) – Welcome to IRIN’s reading list. Every week our global network of specialist correspondents share their top picks of recent must-read research, interviews, reports, blogs and in-depth articles to help you keep on top of global crises. We also highlight key upcoming conferences, book releases and policy debates.

Five to read: 

Aiding & Abetting? The limits of humanitarian aid in the Occupied Palestinian Territories

Jason Cone, executive director of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) USA, writes candidly and in detail about the ever-growing physical and mental health needs of Palestinians living in the Gaza Strip and the Israeli-occupied West Bank, as well as the challenges MSF faces in assisting them. The desperate and intractable situation leads him to question whether aid organisations have crossed the line and are now complicit in perpetuating the suffering. “What our staff sees, day in and day out, are the medical consequences of the occupation. But while we can treat some of our patient’s symptoms, we can’t alter the underlying causes of their suffering.” He says: “This is humanitarian’s dilemma: how to alleviate the suffering of a population while not enabling the powers at the root of the pain.”

Inside Boko Haram 

As Boko Haram’s toll of death and violence grows, so too does its impact on neighbouring countries. In a five-part series for New African Magazine, James Schneider visits Cameroon’s Far North region, speaking to Nigerian refugees about their chilling first-hand experiences of the Islamist militant group and the hardship of their lives in exile. Schneider also speaks to Cameroonians caught up in the violence, including hostage victims and child soldiers. Embedded with Cameroon’s Rapid Intervention Battalion, he explores the regional and political barriers holding back the Boko Haram tide and examines the group’s exploitation of child soldiers. Good on-the-ground reporting from a very troubled part of Africa where humanitarian needs are growing at an alarming rate.

The Logic of Effective Altruism 

Wikipedia defines “effective altruism” as “a philosophy and social movement that applies evidence and reason to determining the most effective ways to improve the world.” This Boston Review multi-voice debate, kicked off by Peter Singer, professor of bioethics at Princeton University and author of Doing the Most Good, explores the concept and its limitations. As well as examining why “effective altruism” has become such a popular niche in American academic and philanthropic circles, Singer also presents wider reflections on giving and our motivations for doing so. An interesting read that informs the on-going global discussions about how to raise more money for humanitarian and developmental response.

Managing crises together: towards coherence and complementarity in recurrent and protracted crises

Published in the run-up to next year’s World Humanitarian Summit, this paper calls for a more collective approach to crisis management. Authors Samuel Carpenter of the British Red Cross and Christina Bennett of the Humanitarian Policy Group at the Overseas Development Institute, examine the impact protracted humanitarian crises have on development factors, while pointing out that the two sides continue to work with different goals via divided architecture. The way aid is financed is a major barrier, they note, as are cultural and structural differences between the two sectors. Recommendations to bridge the gap include: ensuring coherence across the post-2015 global policy agendas; multi-year flexible financing; minimisation of conceptual divides; and creating positive incentives for coherence and risk-informed approaches.

See our report on this topic:  Aid, it’s complicated

CIVICUS: guest essays 

The State of Civil Society Report 2015 produced by global civil society network CIVICUS focuses on how to raise more money for the sector. This collection of 27 guest essays explores financing challenges and solutions. Topics include: improving accountability; Arab philanthropy; Islamic Zakat; the impact of the BRICS (emerging nation) donors, corporate social responsibility; and the rise of social enterprise. A timely read in the aftermath of last week’s third UN Financing for Development summit in Addis Ababa.

See our report: Do summits solve problems?

One to watch:

Borderline: Europe’s Walls

Raw and disturbing footage from some of Europe’s key migration flashpoints. These short videos offer a window onto both the suffering of fleeing migrants and the challenges faced by their destination countries. Footage from the Turkish/Bulgarian border, the Spanish enclave of Melilla that borders Morocco, the Italian island of Lampedusa, France’s Calais – where hundreds are trying to cross the Channel into Britain – and Rome’s Fiumicino airport. The films were produced with the support of the Open Society Foundations and first published on the Italian website Internazionale.

For more on the global migration crisis see our coverage

Coming up:

Live Online Consultation on Gender-Based Violence in Humanitarian Crises

Thursday, 6 August (13-15 GMT) 

Join the International Association of Professionals in Humanitarian Assistance and Protection (PHAP) for this online discussion about Gender-Based Violence (GBV) programming in humanitarian settings. Speakers include: Jasveen Ahluwalia, of CARE International, Angeline Annesteus from Action Aid Haiti, Erin Kenny GBV specialist at the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and Adama Moussa, deputy director of UN Women’s country office in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

From IRIN:

A tough homecoming in Central African Republic

Thousands of people have been returning to their homes in the Central African Republic (CAR) more than a year after fleeing a violent and complex political crisis. But while security may have improved in some areas, resuming any semblance of a normal life is proving a major challenge for many returnees. We report from Bangui about the hardship for CAR citizens struggling to make ends meet in a country ravaged by war and largely forgotten by the international community.


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EU reinforces its support to Central Africa

Today, Commissioner for International Cooperation and Development Neven Mimica, signed the Central Africa Regional Indicative Programme (RIP) of the 11th European Development Fund (EDF) for an amount of €350 million for the period 2014-2020. 

The signature took place in the presence of Ministers and representatives of the Central African region, the Secretary General of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), and the President of the Commission for Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC).

The programme, whose implementation will be monitored by a steering committee, will cover three areas: political integration and cooperation in peace and security (€43 million), regional economic integration and trade (€211 million, of which €135 million will go through the Infrastructure Trust Fund), and the sustainable development of natural resources and biodiversity (€88 million). Another €8 million is set aside to support technical cooperation and regional authorising officers.  

Commissioner Neven Mimica said: “Regional integration is only viable when driven from within the region. It is a means to fulfill the policy objectives set out in the Cotonou Agreement, and to build on the achievements which ECCAS and CEMAC have already made, in economic and monetary integration, in peace and security, in infrastructure and in environment and natural resources.”



The region of Central Africa includes 11 countries: Angola, Burundi, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Sao Tomé and Principe. It has to be noted, however, that Equatorial Guinea never signed the revised Cotonou Agreement, and can therefore not directly benefit from EDF funding. The region has a total population of about 160 million with the Democratic Republic of Congo accounting for nearly half. It is a region rich in natural resources, covering the largest tropical forest area after the Amazon.

Previous funding for Central Africa under the 10th European Development Fund amounted to €165 million. 

For more information see also:

Press release: The EU boosts its support to recovery and development in the Central African Republic

Factsheet: The EU engagement with the Central African Republic (CAR)

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EUR 50 million Lilongwe water investment programme gets European backing

European financial and technical support for investment to alleviate critical water shortages in Malawi’s largest city was confirmed today by the signature of finance agreements confirming a new EUR 24 million loan from the European Investment Bank to support the new EUR 49.2 million investment programme to be implemented by Lilongwe Water Board. The European Investment Bank is the world’s largest lender for the water sector and owned directly by the 28 European Union member states.

New water investment is essential as the population of Lilongwe is expected to double in the next 20 years. Crucial upgrading and improvements to the city’s water infrastructure will be managed by the Lilongwe Water Board over the next four years and increase water supply in low-income areas where services are currently limited as well as reducing water leakage. In this way the new investment will ensure efficient use of the existing water network and scarce water sources, as the city is dependent on water from the Lilongwe River. The project will both improve reliable water supply for customers and share water management best practice staff of the Lilongwe Water Board under a dedicated technical assistance programme.

The new support by European Investment Bank for crucial investment in the capital city was formally agreed in Lilongwe today by Pim van Ballekom, European Investment Bank Vice President responsible for lending in Africa and Goodall Gondwe, Minister of Finance, Economic Planning and Development for the Republic of Malawi.

“On behalf of the people and Government of Malawi, I am very happy to have signed this project which will help the Government address some of the bottlenecks facing the Lilongwe Water Board.” said Goodall Gondwe, Minister of Finance, Economic Planning and Development.

“The European Investment Bank has a successful track record of supporting water investment that has helped to secure the supply of clean water to millions of people across Malawi. Our new engagement in the country demonstrates the EIB’s continued commitment to supporting water investment that improves lives across Africa and around the world. Being able to see at first hand the impact of previous water investment supported by the EIB in Malawi shows the crucial need to continue to upgrade existing water infrastructure and expand the supply of drinking water to more communities. I am confident that the new project confirmed today will improve the quality of water supply and waste water treatment in Lilongwe for many years to come.” said Pim van Ballekom, European Investment Bank Vice President.

“With this new investment project Lilongwe Water Board is closing the gap between supply and demand. By increasing the supply of quality water we will secure the supply clean drinking water for 250,000 people by 2021. This will involve addressing critical issues concerning water quantity and quality, quality of service, efficiency, and continued capacity building of the local water practitioners. We are proud of the strong history of partnership between the EIB and LWB, and we are very honoured for this cooperation to be strengthened today.” said Eng. Alfonso Chikuni, Chief Executive Office of the Lilongwe Water Board.

“Access to water remains a challenge for many Malawians but with EU and EIB support 372 public water kiosks have now been constructed in Lilongwe, providing safe drinking water for many thousands of Malawians. The EU has also contributed EUR 5.5M towards addressing water and sanitation issues in 7 Malawian cities and towns. I welcome the news that the Lilongwe water board and the EIB will continue working together towards reducing leaks and improving services for the city.” says EU Ambassador Marchel Gerrmann.

Mr. Alfonso Chikuni, Chief Executive Officer and other senior representatives of the Lilongwe Water Board, and Ambassador Marchel Gerrmann, Head of the European Union to Malawi, were also present.

The new investment programme managed by Lilongwe Water Board and backed by the European Investment Bank support will help to cater for expected increased demand for water in the city where water has been rationed for the last 3 years and the population is growing by 4% each year. This scheme includes increasing water storage capacity and supply by an additional 30,000 cubic metres of water a day to the city, construction of 100 water kiosks in low-income areas and replacing pipes and pumps that currently act as bottlenecks in the city water system. The water supply networks will also be expanded to areas of Lilongwe not currently connected.

Vice President van Ballekom is in Malawi for a three day official visit to the country, the first visit by high-level representatives of the largest lender for water investment worldwide. During the visit the EIB delegation will also visit successfully completed water investment projects previously financed by the bank. The new initiative represents one of the first public sector projects to be supported by the EIB since 2008.

Over the last five years the European Investment Bank has provided more than EUR 500 million to support water investment including in Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso in the Sahel, Cameroon in central Africa as well as Tanzania, Uganda, Lesotho and Zambia.

In 2014 the European Investment Bank provided more than EUR 2.5 billion to support infrastructure and private sector investment across Africa.

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