The Republic of Chad is a landlocked country in northcentral Africa and a home to over 1501 different ethnic and linguistic groups. Besides its rich ethnic and linguistic diversity, French and Arabic are the two official languages of the country, with the most popular religion being Islam (at 53-58%), followed by Christianity (at 35-40%).2 Chad has been in a state of almost constant instability and protracted conflict since achieving independence in 1960. The legitimacy of President Idriss Déby Itno’s government is being strongly contested on both political and socio economic fronts. It experiences recurrent political violence which revolves around contestation for power during and after elections and recurrent attempted coups. Ethnic and religious rivalries, as well as socio-economic crisis, further intensify the ongoing political grievances throughout the country. In addition, Chad is surrounded by conflicts from neighboring countries. Conflict dynamics in these neighboring countries exacerbates internal crises in Chad, making the conflict-prone country vulnerable to both national and regional instabilities.
Source: Institute for Peace and Security Studies